The Eighth Annual International Symposium on Man and His Environment in Health and Disease

Special Focus: The Health Effects of Indoor Air Pollution

February 22-25, 1990


AMultiple Chemical Sensitivities: Challenges and Opportunities@

Nicholas A. Ashford, PhD

Massachusetts Institute of Technology

Cambridge, MA

Chemical sensitivity has been observed in at least four different clusters of chemically exposed people:

(1) Occupationally exposed workers in industry,

(2) The residents of tight buildings,

(3) Residents of contaminated communities,

(4) Miscellaneous and diverse populations exposed to pesticides, other chemicals, and drugs.

The need for an operational definition of chemical sensitivity relying on the concept of environmental control in an environmental unit is regarded as essential to unraveling the complex causes and effects of exposure to chemicals at low levels. Distinctions need to be made between sensitizing events and subsequent triggering of symptoms. Possible mechanisms and therapies are discussed. Recommendations for a national research initiative are presented.


AThe Biopersonality of Allergies and Environmental Illness@

Iris R. Bell, MD, PhD

Dept. of Psychiatry

Harvard Medical School, McLean Hospital

Belmont, MA

Clinical ecologists and allergists often deal with patients whose course of environmental illness (EI) is particularly severe despite appropriate treatment. Previous and recent research on the personality traits of asthmatic patients may offer clues to one subset of individualsCi.e., extremely introverted or shy personsCprone to a worse clinical course. Psychoimmunological studies suggest that the nervous and immune systems interact in a bi-directional relationship. That is, psychological states can impair or improve specific immune functions, and immune mediators, such as peptides, can alter behavior. In addition to these state changes, however, enduring individual traits of personality and of physiology may be expressions of the same underlying biology. For example, extreme shyness appears to be a stable personality trait with significant genetic (biological) rather than psychosocial factors. Concomitant characteristics of extremely shy children are patterns of psychophysiological function that include higher heart rates, greater salivary cortisol secretion, and histories of childhood colic and allergies not seen in extremely outgoing children. Other data suggest that extremely shy children may have genetic loading for vulnerability to major depression and panic disorder, psychiatric illnesses common in the EI population. The present hypothesis is that a subgroup of EI patients with marked lifelong shyness will be most likely to have a difficult course involving clinical depression and anxiety disorders as well as atopic allergies. Biological traits of the brain=s limbic system in shy persons may regulate the overall presentation of both psychiatric and immune dysfunctions. Data from several studies on allergic and EI patients with which the author has collaborated will be presented to support the above hypothesis.


AFish Ingestion as an Inducer of Neurological Symptoms@

Abram Ber, MD

Phoenix, AZ

The author presents three cases of neurological syndromes induced or aggravated by the ingestion of fish or seafood.

The recent emphasis on the benefits of eating fish has led some people into excess consumption of seafood. It is the author=s contention that mercury is the likely culprit as mercury is known to induce neurological symptoms.

The first case was one of paraesthesiae of recent onset in a middle-aged female who had started a recent increse in fish consumption. The symptoms disappeared after the patient was place on a fish-free diet.

The second case was that of an acute neuralgia affecting half of the head. On questioning, the patient admitted to a tuna meal the previous day. Three drops of the neutralizing dilution of tuna relieved the neuralgia in five minutes.

The third case is a young female diagnosed with ALS. On a multidisciplinary approach, the patient had been improving steadily. She was soon to have her amalgam fillings replaced. Upon the advice of her chiropractor, she began to eat fish on a daily basis and had an immediate regression of her symptoms.

The author conculdes that restriction should be placed on fish intake in those suffering from neurological diseases. It is also advisable to get a careful dietary history in those with a sudden onset of CNS symptoms.


AEcology of the MindC1990"

Joel R. Butler, PhD

Psychology Dept.

University of North Texas

Denton, TX

Emphasizes the interactional affects of mind/body in relationship to both external and internal stressors both of the healing and disease process. A discussion of classical conditioning as a learning paradigm for psychological factors influence on physical response patterns. Conditioning may be deliberate or accidental, but it has far-reaching affects, e.g., the affect on immune parameters, both positive and negative. An expanded interpretation of the placebo affect will also be presented.


AExperiences with a Controlled Environmental Unit for the Last 15 Years@

F.M. Carroll, MD

Southeastern Rheumatology and Allergy Center

Chadbourn, NC

Talk to include: construction details and suggestions about forming a new environmental unit.


AStatistical Data on Radon Exposures@

Ervin J. Fenyves, PhD, and Roy H. Kinslow, MS, PE

Dept. of Physics

University of Texas at Dallas

Richardon, TX

High levels of indoor radon found particularly in energy-saving homes and buildings have caused serious concern in respect to their public health hazard. Recent estimates by the EPA state that the exposure of millions of Americans to higher than permissible levels of radon may be responsible for as many as 10,000-30,000 lung cancer deaths per year. Radon is a naturally occurring radioactive gas that emanates from the soil and ground water into the homes and buildings. The health hazard of radon arises from its production of a chain of radioactive isotopes called radon daughters. Indoors, they can reach large concentrations due to inadequate air exchange. Upon inhalation, the readon daughters can lodge in the lungs and expose the lung tissue to energetic alpha particles, thereby substantially increasing the risk of lung cancer.


ACrohn=s As an Environmental Disease@

Ronald Finn, MD

Dept. of Immunology

Royal Liverpool Hospital, Prescot St.

Liverpool L7 8XP, Eng.

The criteria necessary to establish a disease as environmental include the demonstration of changes in disease incidence in both time and space. These criteria are met in a disease such as Rheumatoid Arthritis, which only appeared about 100 years ago and is uncommon in rural areas in the Third World. Crohn=s disease also shows geographic and temporal variations in incidence and can, therefore, be accepted as an environmental disease.

Previous anecdotal reports and controlled studies indicate that dietary factors are involved. In the present study sera from patients with Crohn=s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have been evaluated for antibodies reactive with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Baker=s Yeast) using an enzyme linked immunoassay (ELISA). IgG anti-Sacc antibodies were detected in 63% (25/40) CD patients compared with 15% (4/27) of UC patients (p<0.001) and 8% (5/60) helathy adult controls (p<0.001). Elevated levels of serum IgA anti-Sacc antibodies were detected in CD, but not in UC. The prevalence of IgG anti-E coli, 011 antibodies was similar in CD and UC.

These findings suggested the hypothesis that sensitivity to Baker=s Yeast may be a cause of Crohn=s disease.


AThe Concept of Prehepatic Medicine@

Hidemitsu Hayashi, MD

Kyowa Medical Clinic

Oshibedani, Nishiku, Kobe 673-02, Japan

It is quite natural that we pay attention to the quality and quantity of foods and drinks of our health. We know well we should try to eat fresh eggs or vegetables, fresh fish or meats, and we should avoid eating putrefied foods. The most important problem is, however, to investigate how the materials ingested are metabolized in our GI tract. If our feces or final metabolites of them are of disgusting property, those materials should be putrefied by intestinal flora, in spite of our efforts to eat nonputrefied foods.

We should know that the putrefied metabolites with disgusting odor such as hydrogen sulfides, indoles, phenol, ammonias and various amines, like histamines or nitrosamines, should bring about a number of diseases.

We must realize that the constituent of metabolites being transferred from GI tract to the liver through the portal vein may have decisive influences on the liver function as well as on the metabolism of the whole body.

I wish to emphasize the meaning of the role of prehepatic organs or intestinal flora and the importance of introduction of the concept of prehapatic medicine, which should inevitably lead us to reconsider the concept of the present medical science.


AHypometabolism and Methodology for Metabolic Evaluation and Treatment as It Relates to Vitamin/Mineral Deficiencies and Environmental Toxics@

Jacques Hertoghe, MD, and Thierry Hertoghe, MD

Dept. of Endocrinology

Antwerp Medical Center

Antwerpen, Belgium

Decline in metabolism may result from vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies or even from environmental toxins.

Emphasis is put on rigorous anamnestic, clinical, and biological evaluation for detection.

Replacement treatment for deficiencies is advocated in physiological doses. Adequate food intake is recommended, although not always sufficient as a preventive therapy.

The presence of toxics can lead to inefficiency of medical treatment if the toxics are not removed.

The underlying biochemical disturbances in metabolism are approached.


AEvaluation of the Autonomic Nervous System Response by Pupillographical Study in the Chemically Sensitve Patient@

Alfred R. Johnson, DO, Satoshi Ishikawa, MD, William J. Rea, MD, and Shinji Shirakawa, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

It is well-known that chemically sensitive patients have the symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction after they are exposed to pesticides or chemical solvents. However, no objective studies have been done to address the change of the autonomic nervous system in chemically sensitive patients. We evaluated the autonomic nerve function using open loop pupillography in 43 chemically sensitive patients, proven either by intradermal or inhaled challenge, under environmentally controlled conditions, and 18 controls. Of 43 patients, 20 had organochlorine pesticides in their blood, and 23 had chemical solvents (aliphatic and aromatic) in their blood. The significant differences of autonomic nervous system function were seen in velocity of constriction and dilation time in the chemical solvents patients group, compared to the control group. In the pesticide patients group, the significant differences were seen, not only in the velocity of constriction and dilation time, but also pupil area and velocity of dilation. These results showed that the patients with chemical sensitivity usually had deregulation of their autonomic nervous system. The pupillary abnormalities, which were seen in 33 of 43 chemically sensitive patients by pupillographical examination, as compared to a control group. When analyzing the type of autonomic nerve disturbance in the patients, the inhibitory (sympatholytic) type of autonomic nervous system function was seen in 21 of 33 patients while cholinergic changes were seen in nine patients. This present pupillographical study suggests that there is autonomic nervous system dysfunction in chemically sensitive patients, and their dysfunction can be accurately measured under environmentally controlled conditions.


AAndropause and Adrenopause Really Exist: They Start from the 35th Year on and Affect Many Men@

Jacques Hertoghe, MD, and Thierry Hertoghe, MD

Dept. of Endocrinology

Antwerp Medical Center

Antwerpen, Belgium

Until recently male gonads were considered to function adequately many years beyond the age of female gonadal failure of menopause. That this seems not to be the case in many men has been recently deocumented by Dr. Bebled (Paris) and confirmed by the authors and other physicians. On the contrary, in many men, and even from the 35th year of life, testosterone production and peripheral tissue utilization decrease steadily, causing sexual and overall systemic aging. Further anabolic steroid failure is aggravated in several of these men by diminished adrenal androgen production as shown by severe decrease of 17-Ketosteroid fractions in 24- hr urine.

Deficiency of the male hormone has pronounced damaging effects in men. Clinical and biochemical evaluation of androgen condition in men deserves great consideration as early replacement therapy inverses the catabolic condition created by the lack of sufficient anabolic androgen hormones and helps to restore maletonic activity.


AHigh Frequency in World Population of the Multiple Deficiency Syndrome: Concept of Metabolic Imbalance@

Jacques Hertoghe, MD, and Thierry Hertoghe, MD

Dept. of Endocrinology

Antwerp Medical Center

Antwerpen, Belgium

The multiple deficinecy syndrome (MDS) applies to patients presenting a hypometabolic state caused by simultaneous occurrence of several hormonal, vitamin, mineral, and trace element deficiencies. These deficiencies are often borderline in tests, and thus not rarely undiagnosed and untreated, although their symptomatology may be rich.

The MDS is exposed in its possible causes, clinical and biological aspects, frequency, and treatment.

These various deficiencies cause metabolic imbalances in the body, the internal environment. An approach is made to understand the link between deficiencies, disturbance in metabolis,m and clinical expression of the MDS.


ABinding of Toxicants by Carbonyl- and Sulfide-containing Chemicals@

Arthur S. Hume, PhD, Johnette Gothard, and James Mozingo

Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology

University of Mississippi Medical Center

Jackson, Mississippi

Exposure to chemicals, especially long-duration exposure, could result in effects upon basic biochemical processes. The toxic manifestation of these effects would be expressed as a lack of Awell-being.@ If sufficient quantities of relatively innocuous agents that could bind the chemicals are circulated in the system, movement of the chemicals into target tissues could be inhibited, and their elimination could be enhanced.

Certain agents will bind some of the toxicants by interacting with functional groups as carbonyl and sulfhydryl groups. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid will protect animals from the lethality of 3-6x a lethal dose of potassium cyanide. Pyruvic acid, another endogenous keto acid, will protect against cyanide and sulfide. Ascorbic acid has been reported to scavenge for free radicals, including superoxide and hydroxyl radicals (Bando et al., 1986, J Free Radical in Biol and Med 2:261-66). Reduction of blood aluminum levels by citric acid has been reported (Domingo et al., 1988, J Analyt Tox 26[1-2]:67-69). This finding could be of significance in Alzheimer=s disease. It is evident that scavenging of chemicals can occur. Studies of efficacy of this process are very scarce.


AChange in Near Reflex in VDT Worker@

Satoshi Ishikawa, Tasuto Namba, Toshihiko Nakayama, and Mikio Myata

Dept. of Ophthalmology, School of Medicine

Kitasato University

Sagamihara, Kanagawa 228, Japan

Near triad of the eye consists of three responses, i.e., accomodation, pupil consriction, and convergence. We have reported possible involvement of the near triad among the Visual Display Terminal (VDT) workers who work more than 20 hrs per week.

In this study, we have selected professional VDT workers (24 with the mean age of 27.4 yrs) and hard copy workers (26 with the mean age of 25.8 yrs). Both subjects complained of severe eyestrain and general fatigue after the work. Routine ophthalmological and general examination could not find positive signs from both groups. The function of the near triad, however, showed a difference in both groups. Abnormal function of either accommodation or pupil reaction was seen in both VDT and hard copy workers, but the rate of detection was significantly higher in the VDT group.

VDT work may be overloaded by abnormal parasympathetic or sympathetic tone. Preliminary results by animal study will be presented together with clinical study.


AThe Effect of Sauna/Physical Therapy and Environmental Control on Clearing Aliphatic Hydrocarbon Solvents from the Body@

Alfred R. Johnson, DO, and William J. Rea, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

This study investigated the effect of sauna/physical therapy in conjunction with good environmental control in thirty chemically sensitive individuals, who had a variety of aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents in their blood, from indoor and outdoor sources. After a program of therapy including exercise, sauna, massagae, vitamin and mineral replacement and conducted under environmentally controlled conditions, there was improvement in sign and symptoms of 83.3% of these patients.

Blood levels of cyclopentane, n-hexane, n-pentane, 3-methyl-pentane, 2,2-dimethylbutane, and 2-methylpentane were reduced in 71.4%, 46.7%, 44.8%, 43.4%, 41.7%, and 40% of the patients, respectively. The data confirms that this type of detoxification therapy is a useful method for clearing aliphatic hydrocarbon solvents and improving patients= health.


AUptake and Metabolism of Organophosphorus Pesticides@

John L. Laseter, PhD

Accu-Chem Laboratories

Richardson, TX

The use of phophorous-based chemicals to control insect pests in agriculture and the home has markedly increased in recent years. Common examples include diazinon. Pesticides, as a class, have biological half-lives of hours to weeks, depending on the chemical structure of the compound and the physiological and health status of the exposed individual. Because these pesticides yield only a few common metabolites, the measurement of these metabolites in urine offers a mechanism to establish exposure. The metabolism and methods of measurement will be discussed along with exposure case studies.


AStudy on the Function of Fibroblast against Cancer Cells In Vitro@

Hsueh-chia Liang, MD, PhD

Beijing, China

A phenomenon was found that the fibroblast cells from tumor tissue can restrict cancer cells in vitro. A biological assay revealed that only the secretion products from the fibroblast activated by tumor cells can kill cancer cells, but not normal human diploid cells. Ten cell lines were assayed, including mouse fibroblast cell (L929), human normal diploid cell (WI-38), colon cancer (HT-29), breast cancer (BT-20), lung cancer (A549), ovarian cancer (SK-OV-3), leukemia (K562), melanoma (BRO, HT-144, G361), and a primary melanoma tissue culture. The secretion products from three cancer patients= fibroblast (lung, melanoma, and chest wall cancer) showed a killer activity to all cancer cell lines. The function of fibroblast against cancer cells in vitro was discussed.


AFoamy Virus Isolated from a Renal Carcinoma Patient@

Hsueh-chia Liang, MD, PhD

Beijing, China

An unknown virus was isolated from a primary tissue culture of a renal cell carcinoma patient. Its cytopathic effect showed to be a characteristic foamy-like vacuole. Under electron microscope, the unknown virus was found in the cytoplasm. It was found to be spherical and enveloped, 100 nm in diameter and budding from the cell membrane. Preliminary identification indicated that it might be a member of the foamy virus of spumaviridinae subfamily in retroviridae. It appears that this unknown virus is of oncogenetic nature.


AStudy on the Critical Reference Value from the Regression Equation between the Chlorinated Pesticides and the Immune Parameters@

Hsueh-chia Liang, MD, PhD,

Beijing, China

William J. Rea, MD, and Said Youdim, PhD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

Ervin J. Fenyves, PhD

University of Texas at Dallas

Richardson, TX

Sixty proven chemically sensitive patients whose blood level of chlorinated pesticides and T&B lymphocyte parameters were studied. The simple regression results showed alpha-BHC had a negative correlation with a B lymphocyte (R=-0.3136, p<0.02); B-BHC had a significant negative correlation with the absolute lymphocyte, T11 cell, T8 cell, and B lymphocyte count (R=-0.3875 to -0.2558; p<0.003-0.05) and a significant positive correlation with the percentage of T11 cell, T4 cell, and T4/T8 (p<0.002-0.008). DDT had a positive correlation with the percentage of T11 cells (R=0.2547, p<0.05). Trans N had a negative correlation with absolute lymphocytes R=-0.2578, p<0.05) and a positive correlation with the percentage of T8 cells (R=0.3006, p<0.02). The multiple regression results showed there was a significant correlation between chlorinated pesticdes and T&B lymphocyte parameters, including the absolute lymphocyte count, the percentage of T11 cells, the percentage of T4 cells, the absolute T8 cell count, T4/T8 , and the absolute B lymphocyte count (multiple R=0.45-0.60, adjusted R=0.36-0.49, p<0.004-0.03). These results indicate that chlorinated pesticides do have an immuno deregulation effect on the T&B lymphocyte parameters. According to these regression equations, a new conceptCa critical reference valueCwas defined and discussed.


AToluene Sensitivity@

Linda Livingston, PhD

University of Texas Medical School

Houston, TX

M.R. Sanjar, MD

Houston, TX

William J. Rea, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

Scientists are exposed to a variety of toxic chemicals in their work environment at much higher levels than would be found in most environmental situations. When the ventilation and building construction are inadequate to correct for the high exposure levels, severe illness may occur even to the point of total incapacitation. Toluene is one such toxic chemical. Toluene, a lipophilic solvent, produces a multitude of effects in the body. Tyrosine and tryptophan, as well as possibly many other amino acids, are decreased. Prolactin is elevated, and there may be a number of endocrinological abnormalities. Sleep disturances are a complicating factor in recovery. Unfortunately, when an individual is overcome by one chemical, a multitude of chemical sensitivities usually ensues, and the time course for recovery may take years.

Case report illustrating these symptoms will be discussed.


AFive Years of Experience in a Purpose Built Environmentally Controlled Unit@

D.J. Maberly, MD

Airedale Allegy Centre,

Airedale General Hospital

Keighley, West Yorkshire, Eng.

The Airedale Allergy Centre is the only independent purpose built Centre, as far as we know. The basic concepts were fully utilized in the construction and have been proven highly successful. Our independence has also proved to be invaluable.

We function on three different levelsCall equally important: diagnosis, education, and treatment. The nursing staff are as intimately involved with the whole programme as are the medical staff and are trained accordingly.

Over the years the main changes have been that:

(a) we have become stricter in our recommendations and management after discharge;

(b) we now recognize the need for a more prolonged follow-up.

Our results have remained consistently good.


AExperimental Allergic Conjunctivitis due to Environmental Chemicals@

Mikio Miyata, Tatsuto Namba, and Satoshi Ishikawa

Dept. of Ophthalmology

School of Medicine

Kitasato University

Sagamihara, Japan

Severe allergic disease in early spring became extremely common in Japan for the past 20 years. The reason why the increment has been produced is a matter of dipute. Clinically they have epiphora, itching of the eye, sneezing, cough, headache, dullness, and fever. In spite of extensive epidemiological survey to find out a relationship to cedar pollen, the reason of this increase is not clear. A supersensitivity due to certain chemicals with cedar pollen must be considered.

In the present study, guinea pigs were passively immunized by an intravenous injection of antisera to Japan cedar pollen. Thereafter, the effects due to organophosphorous pesticide (trichlofon; DEP, Dipterex7, and fenitrothion; MEP, Sumithion7) and organochlorine herbicide (paraquat dichloride; Gramoxone7) on the conjunctival immune reaction against cedar pollen was estimated quantitatively by measuring extravasated Evans blue of the conjunctiva, which was previously intravenously administered.

The most sensitive allergic reaction was obtained from the groups administered with from10-4 to 10-3 mg/kg of trichlorofon and from 10-4 to 10-3 mg/kg of fenithrothion, and from 10-3 to 10-4 mg/kg or paraquat dichloride. It was interesting that supersensitivity was observed in the lower dosage than higher dosage. The effects persisted at least two weeks in organophosphorus pesticides after exposure and at least one week in organochlorine herbicide after exposure.

Those results suggested that there was a strong relationship between environmentally spread pesticides as well as herbicides onto the allergic conjunctivitis.


ACareful Amino Acid Supplementation@

Jon B. Pangborn, PhD

Bionostics, Inc.

Lisle, Minnesota

Amino acid supplementation can be very beneficial in cases of nutritional inadequacy, food intolerances, gastrointestinal dysfunction, chronic inflammation, toxicity, neurological disorders, etc. However, excessive use of some amino acids can provoke nutritional imbalances or pathological conditions. The recent FDA-ordered recall of tryptophan, due to the CDC-determined linkage between tryptophan and eosinophilia-myositis, may be an example of this.

Some types of intestinal flora metabolize tryptophan and form toxic precursors to indican (indicanuria). Doubtless, large amounts of tryptophan could cause imbalances in flora and could foster abnormal or pathological flora in the gut. Phenylalanine and tyrosine may do this as well. Use of phenylalanine or artificial sweeteners containing phenylalanine are observed to provoke hypoglycemia via stimulation of pancreatic release of insulin. Cystine and cysteine are known to be excellent for culturing Candida albicans. Unpublished clinical trials indicated that individuals with intestinal candidiasis Areact@ to supplements containing free-form cystine or cysteine.

Overuse of amino acid blends, powdered protein supplements, or excessive dietary protein can raise tissue ammonia levels and provoke headaches, foggy thinking, irritability, and fatigue. Alpha-ketoglutaric acid, the body=s natural balancer for nitrogen, scavenges ammonia, but may have to be supplemented in cases of high protein intake, amino acid supplementation, or hyperammonemia.

This presentation discusses the above problems, suggest indicative laboratory tests, and mentions appropriate amino acid dosages.


ACan We Prevent Suicide?@

Doris Rapp, MD

Buffalo, NY

A 12-year-old boy whose fater committed suicide will be presented. He had similar seasonal symptoms of depression and many other of his father=s characteristics.

A brief discussion of other suicidal children will be given.

Drawings made by other seasonally suicidal children will be shown.

A short movie of one or two children may be shown.


A17-Year Experience with an Environmentally Controlled Unit@

William J. Rea, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

In the past 17 years, we have treated over 20,000 chemically sensitive patients. Of these, over 7,000 were fasted to lessen their total load, with no deaths or serious complications. Over 17,000 patients have been placed on rotary diet. Over 64,000 oral food challenges and over 1,800,000 intradermal skin tests for foods, chemicals, and inhalants have been performed. Skin testing and treatment procedures have been demonstrated to be safe, with no fatalities or life-threatening or intensive care for inpatients. Over 10,000,000 treatment injections have been given by patients at home, without a fatality or severe enough reaction to require hospitalization. Over 17,000 homes have been modified to varying degrees to help patients have a safer environment.

The author will present follow-up study data, showing that 90% of the patients have had improvement in their health problems. Other information on incidence of use of antigens, rotation diet, supplementation, immune enhancement, and heat-chamber detoxification will be presented.


AElectromagnetic Sensitivity@

William J. Rea, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

Over the past several years, there has been growing awareness of the problem of electromagnetic sensitivity to computer terminals, power lines, and a host of other EMF sources. Systematic evaluation of these patients has been difficult. Some invetigators have ignored food and chemical problems, yielding imprecise results. No areas are totally safe from EMF fields, with city rooms ranging from 25 to 700 nanotesla. We have developed consistent methods of evaluating EMF patients and found that some patients are too fragile for immediate repeat exposures. The double-blind studies can be spaced a week apart to obtain accurate data. We have studied 85 patients, 60 of whom were found to be sensitive, ranging from 0.1 Hz to 5 MHz, using an EM generator. Twenty-five patients have double-blind challenges and showed specific reactions to several frequencies. Iriscorder changes were seen on repeat double-blind challenges on ten patients. It is apparent from these studies that the presence of EMF sensitivity can be demonstrated under the right conditions.


AEnvironmentally-Triggered Hypertension, Part I: Mechanisms@

William J. Rea, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

The author will review potential mechanisms of environmentally triggered hypertension, including effects of foods, chemicals and inhalants, and other factors. The term Aessential hypertension@ encompasses a complex set of interacting influences that are known to be related to this diagnosis, including nutrition, genetics, electrolytes, and social factors.

Natural pressor amines in foods, like zanthines in chocolate and coffee or tyramine in bananas, are examples of the pharmacologic effects of foods. In addition, food sensitivity, other natural toxins, and chemical additives are all known to be able to trigger hypertensive responses.

Inhalants and other ingested material, especially mold toxins, are known to have pressor effects as well. Chemicals can trigger the release of neurotransmitters and other vasoactive peptides and inhibit detoxification mechanisms. Nutritional disorders, like magnesium deficiency, may contribute to hypertension as well, and this affords a promising avenue of treatment. EMF effects may also have significant effects on the cardiovascular system. Case histories will be presented to demonstrate environmentally triggered hypertension.


AIs It Chemical Sensitivity or Magnesium Deficiency?@

Sherry A. Rogers, MD

Northeast Center for Environmental Medicine

Syracuse, NY

Since magnesium deficiency is reported to be the most commonly unrecognized cation deficiency in current medicine, with no blood test that will unequivocally rule it out, we devised an oral magnesium loading test (MLT). Of 100 randomly selected patients, over 51% reported marked improvement in symptoms.

Of the positive responders, 70% of the improved symptoms were referable to the central and peripheral nervous system. An increase in energy was reported in 50%, improved musculoskeletal symptoms in 38%, and additional improvement was noted in asthma (18%), irritable bowel (14%), cardiac arrhythmias (8%), dental (6%), and urinary bladder symptoms (4%).

Because magnesium is crucial in over 300 enzymes, it is not surprising that there was a wide range of reported symptom improvement. In fact, well over 50 symptoms were reported improved. More importantly, from our standpoint, over 9% of the patients reported marked diminution in chemical and/or food sensitivity after the test. Clearly, the MLT appears beneficial enough to warrant investigating in all patients who have symptoms that either resist current treatments or that would require long-term medications for control.


AEnvironmentally-Triggered Hypertension, Part II: Environmental Health Center-Dallas Treatment Experience@

Gerald H. Ross, MD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

A review of 53 cases with a major presenting diagnosis of hypertension will be presented, with comparison to both healthy volunteer and MS controls. All these patients were taking medication for blood pressure upon arrival at the Environmental Health Center-Dallas, and after follow-up, only 85 needed blood pressure medication. Readings before and after comprehensive environmental treatment showed substantial reductions that were highly significant (p<0.0001).

Comparison analysis of the numbers and levels of toxic blood chemicals showed statistically higher levels in the hypertensive group compared to the other groups. Positive skin sensitivity to terpenes was much more frequent in the hypertensive group than controls (p<0.01).

Other data, including cholesterol levels, immune parameters, and RBC minerals, showed statistically significant results.

The terapeutic use of magnesium supplementation will be discussed, and a treatment protocol presented.


ACell Adhesion Molecules: How Form and Immune Function Are Related@

C.G. Rousseaux, PhD

Dept. of Veterinary Pathology

University of Saskatchewan

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

The cell surface and how it relates to cell interaction has been the subject of much research for cell biologists, morphologists, and immunologists. Cell adhesion molecules expression, communication between cells, and extracellular matrix are necessary for place-dependent mechanisms for the control of gene expression in mammalian form. Multilevel signal pathways occur between cell collectives in development and embryogenesis in all body systems. Abnormal development can start through disturbances of cell adhesion and signaling in certain tissue collectives. The interaction between cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) and substrate adhesion molecules (SAMs) allows recognition of cells and surrounding molecules. This recognition is not limited to animal form. The immunoglobulin superfamily is highly homologous to the cell adhesion molecules. This homology indicates that the control of the immune system is similar to development of form. Cellular interactions, both in form and immunology, drive change in a species under evolutionary stresses rather than a specific genotype. For this reason individuals= exposure to chemicals before birth may show defective form. Post-natal exposure may cause abnormal development of the immune system, resulting in a Achemically sensitive@ person. This presentation will give the audience some background into CAMs, SAMs, and CJMs and how these molecules interact to obtain animal form. How the immune system may react in the same way to cellular collectives during cellular development will be explained. It will become apparent that the field of teratology (abnormal development) is closely related to the field of abnormal immunology.


AChemical Exposure through Skin Contact: Dermatotoxicology@

C.G. Rousseaux, BVSc, PhD

Dept. Of Veterinary Pathology

Western College of Veterinary Medicine

University of Saskatchewan

Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada

Dermatotoxicology is a relatively new discipline. It is defined as the science that deals with adverse skin effects and substances that produce them. A topically applied substance must first penetrate the skin before it can sensitize, irritate, or cause systemic toxic effects. The skin is the largest organ of the body, constituting approximately 10% of normal body weight. As the skin has such a large surface area, exposure of this organ to small concentrations of a compound over all the organ can result in absorption of potential toxic amounts of compounds. First, this presentation will detail skin structure, function, and biochemistry. Second, cutaneous biotransformation will be addressed with particular reference to steroid biotransformation, epidermal metabolism of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and miscellaneous metabolic reactions. Third, percutaneous absorption will be discussed with particular reference to absorption enhancers. Finally, the significance of the skin in adaption to our Achemical environment@ will be discussed.


AThe Emstaler Allergy Concept@

Klaus-Dietrich Runow, MD

Institute for Environmental Diseases

Emstal, West Germany

In addition to the diagnostic and therapeutic methods of the field of clinical ecology, such as provocation/neutralization tests and analysis of toxic substances, we consider the living and working environment to be an integral part of our treatment. For this reason we decided to redesign and rebuild completely our institute in accordance with the newest ecoarchitectural knowledge. Before beginning construction of the institute, which was completed in March 1989, we had the property examined and the magnetic field variation measured with a geomagnetometer. The degree of interference was below that of the natural range of the earth=s magnetic field. The mineral paints and plaster have the ability to filter, bind, and neutralize toxic substances in the air. Terpene-free natural lacquers and waxes developed for sensitive patients were used to treat all wood used. The electrical installations include complete isolation of all wiring and specially developed circuit switches that, when shut off, eliminate all electrical fields in the rooms. New developments in this area will also be presented.


AImmunological Therapy of Chronic Inflammatory Bowel Disease@

Klaus-Dietrich Runow, MD

Institute for Environmental Diseases

Emstal, West Germany

Erno Szatloczky, MD, PhD, and Laszlo Zalay, MD

University of Budapest

Budapest, Hungary

In addition to the diagnosis of food allergies as a cause of chronic inflammatory bowel disease, we have used immunological and micrbiological methods to characterize and treat those illnesses. Test results showed a high antibody-agglutination titer against intestinal E. Coli strains. After an exact classification of the particular E. Coli strain with monoclonal antibodies, the strain is cultivated and a serum for autovaccination prepared. For treatment of intestinal dysbiosis or Candida infection we have successfully given patients prenylamine lactate. The positive side effect of this now obsolete coronary medication is, in our opinion, a major indication for its use. Prenylamine lactate works as an antibiotic and fungicide without inducing resistance and without destroying the intestinal flora, two undesirable effects of conventional antibiotic therapy.


AHuman Health Effects of the Exxon Valdez Oil Spill@

Douglas B. Seba, PhD

Environmental Medicine Consultant

Alexandria, VA

While oil-soaked sea otters and blackened bald eagles make compelling TV pictures, the real issue may be the human health consequences. Over 10,000 persons were employed for several months in some of the harshest working conditions on earth and trying to clean up an admittedly toxic substance. While human nature demands that someone cleans up the mess, the reality is that we have only made matters worse.


AHealth and Hazard in the Electrical Environment@

Cyril W. Smith, PhD

Dept. of Electronic and Electrical Engineering

University of Salford

Salford, Eng.

The natural electrical environment has been overlaid with a manmade, technology-serving environment, largely created within the past 50 years (1). The thermal hazards of electromagnetic fields have been recognized and regulated. The nonthermal effects of electromagnetic fields present a much more challenging problem. Compared to biochemistry, the roles of electromagnetic fields in living systems are little understood. Under conditions of high coherence, Maxwell=s Laws of electromagnetic propagation may not apply. Recent joint work (with W. Kropp, Wekroma GmbH, Switzerland) suggests that living systems and water can also react to the magnetic vector potential. This implies the possibility of bio-effects under zero field conditions. Progress in the testing of electrically hypersensitive patients will be presented and discussed in respect to their environmental health implications. The pattern is of a continuous spectrum of electromagnetic bio-effects persisting to very weak fields, and synergistic with other environmental triggers. Required is overall improvement in the environment, electrical Asafe-havens,@ and appropriate electrical design specifications.


AThe Importance of Personal Activities and Indoor Sources to Human Exposure to Toxic Compounds@

Lance A. Wallace, PhD

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

Washington, D.C.

A decade of research on human exposure to toxic and carcinogenic organic chemicals has shown that exposure is usually due mostly to common daily activities involving small nearby sources such as consumer products and building materials. These findings have upset the ideas that most exposures are due to such outdoor sources as chemical plants, incinerators, hazardous waste sites, and automobiles. These findings provide objective evidence supporting the claims of some persons that common environmental chemicals such as cigarette smoke, cosmetics, and pesticides may be responsible for their medical symptoms. The presentation will focus on the EPA=s large-scale, population-based TEAM studies (representing more than one million U.S. residents), which have measured the environmental exposures of about 800 individuals and the indoor air concentrations in their homes. Another EPA study of ten buildings (including nursing homes and office buildings) and the chemical emissions from fifty different building materials will also be discussed. More recent studies of targeted activities and breath analysis provide additional evidence on the importance of personal activities and consumer products in human exposure to toxic substances.


ASecondary Risk Factors in Toxic Injury@

K. Lemone Yielding, MD

The University of Texas Medical Branch at Galveston

Galveston, TX

Every individual is not at equal risk for toxic injury. Variability in outcome is not simply a matter of probability, but also results from the fact that there are multiple factors that influence the response of each individual to toxic exposure. These factors, which may be termed Asecondary risk factors,@ may be due to intrinsic or acquired differences in host suceptibility; the effects of preceding or simultaneous injury or protection due to secondary agents or disease; variations, both intrinsic and acquired, in the ability of the host to recover from specific types of damage, or the occurrence of a poorly understood period of latency between exposure and expression of injury. In fact, it is often arguable which of multiple exposures should be considered the primary and which the secondary risk factor.

The work to be presented may serve as an example of the interplay of two different insults in producing retinal degeneration. In the albino rodent, prolonged light exposure can produce retinal degeneration, which appears as the animal ages. In the present experiments, exposure of mice in utero to the alkylating agent methylnitrosourea resulted in retinal degeneration over time in the maturing adult. This lesion was enhanced by light exposure and completely prevented by rearing in the dark. Furthermore, the feeding of the radical scavenger butylhydroxytoluene throughout life could prevent the appearance of the lesion even in light-exposed animals. It is presumed that prenatal treatment of the mice enhanced their susceptibility to toxic injury by light. Furthermore, it would appear that the secondary effect of radicals was necessary in order to produce the expression of the toxic injury in the form of retinal degeneration (work supported by a grant from the National Eye Institute).


ATreatment of Environmentally Ill Patients with Transfer Factor@

Said Youdim, PhD

Environmental Health Center-Dallas

Dallas, TX

At the Environmental Health Center-Dallas, 35 patients were enrolled in a program of transfer factor (TF) for a period of 6 to 12 months. Each patient was administered two doses of TF each week. Before receiving TF, all of the patients were tested for cell-mediated immune (CMI) reponse or delayed hypersensitivity reactions to Tetanus, Diphtheria, Streptococcus, Tuberculin, Candida, Trichophyton, and Proteus. Additionally, each patient=s circulating lymphocytes were phenotyped for total numbers of lymphocytes, T-helper and T-suppressor cells. Each patient was asked to keep a symptoms score sheet prior to and following therapy for hypersensitivity reactions, cephalgia, recurrent infections, fatigue, gastrointestinal problems, depression, and lack of concentration. In general, clinical progress was accompanied by improved immunologic parameters. Sixty to seventy percent of the treated patients demonstrated improvement in one or more of their symptoms in terms of severity and frequency. These data as well as three prototype case studies will be discussed.


AThe Simple Environmental Control Unit@

Hongyu Zhang, MD

Dept. of Allergy

Peking Union Medical College Hospital

Beijing, China



According to the basic principles of environmental control and in the light of specific conditions of our country, we set up the first simple environmental control unit (ECU) in China. The air-filter system of the ECU is able to eliminate inhalant allergens. The walls were laid with ceramic tiles, so it can be cleaned easily and throroughly. Checking up with air sample trap, we found that the amount of molds, pollens, house dust particles as well as chemicals were markedly reduced than those of ordinary wards. Most of occupational asthma have satisfactorily curative effect under the ECU treatment. Lung function and methacholine challenge tests were done on ten asthmatics before admission and two to four weeks after ECU treatment. The results revealed that the ventilatory function of the patients was markedly improved after ECU treatment, while the airway hyperreactivity improved in varying degrees as well.


AModified Environmental Control Unit in China@

Hongyu Zhang, MD

Dept. of Allergy

Peking Union Medical College Hospital

Beijing, China

To avoid contact with allergens is one of the basic principles for treatment of allergic diseases. According to the basic principle of environmental control and in the light of specific conditions of our country, we have set up a modified environmental control unit. The filter system of the ECU is able to eliminate inhalant allergens. The wall of the unit is laid with glazed tile, so it can be cleaned with water easily. Through checking up of dish-exposure and slide-exposure, the amount of molds, pollens as well as house dust are evidently lower than that of ordinary wards. Methacholine challenge was done on ten asthmatics before admission and two weeks after treatment in the ECU. The result reveals that the ECU is able to reduce airway hyperreactivity of the patients.


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